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SR-71, Commonly Called the Blackbird, Still Holds Speed Record From 1974

The muzzle velocity of a high powered 30-06 rifle bullet is 2910 feet per second. The Blackbird can fly at 3226 feet per second. Of course, that bullet starts to lose speed as it leaves the rifle barrel, but the Blackbird continues to fly at MACH 3+ and then accelerates faster, with each of its engines producing the power of 45 locomotives!

Developed during the middle of the cold war, the Lockheed SR-71 was designed as a reconnaissance aircraft that could fly fast enough to avoid being shot down by Russian aircraft or missiles. Initially developed as the A-12 for the CIA, the aircraft evolved and adapted many times over the 30 years it was in service.

The SR-71 was designed to fly more than three times the speed of sound. Beyond the sleek aerodynamics needed, one of the biggest challenges was developing an engine that could fly at such speeds. Rocket-powered aircraft could fly faster, but a rocket engine doesn’t need to worry about ingesting air, mixing it with fuel and then igniting the mixture to create thrust.

The challenge of an air-breathing jet engine, is the air must be traveling slower than Mach 1, the speed of sound, when it enters the engine. If supersonic air does reach a jet engine, the result is known as an “unstart” and the engine stalls and needs to be restarted in flight. Big problem if you’re flying over the Soviet Union with fighter planes chasing after you.
Because of the speeds flown by the SR-71, a much more complex inlet was needed to control the airflow. It has a spike-shaped cone located at the front of the air inlet that could be moved back and forth to control where the supersonic shock wave would enter the engine.

By carefully monitoring the aircraft speed, atmospheric conditions and engine parameters, the pilot could adjust the spike along with a series of doors. By doing this, a shock wave could actually be positioned in such a way that it would act as a speed bump of sorts and slow down the incoming air to Mach 0.6, the ideal speed for air to enter the jet engine.
The result was air would enter the inlet at approximately 2,100 mph, and within 20 feet, it would slow down to a speed of 600 mph. This didn’t always go according to plan, and unstarts would happen. Pilots describe the unpleasant event as a violent jerk to the side of the stalled engine and continued shaking, along with unwelcome noises until the engine could be restarted.

But, the result of all this complex air-inlet management was an engine that could push the SR-71 faster than any other jet aircraft. The official top speed was Mach 3.2, although pilots inadvertently flew as fast as Mach 3.5. Typical speeds would be around 3.0.

In 1974, on a flight to the Farnborough Air Show outside of London, Maj. James Sullivan and Maj. Noel Widdifield flew the SR-71 Blackbird from New York to London in 1 hour, 54 minutes, 56.4 seconds. The 1,806 mph flight still holds the transatlantic speed record between the two cities.

By comparison, the Concorde typically flew from New York to London in around three hours, and a 747 makes the trip in about six hours. The SR-71 did get a bit of a running start, because to time the trip, it flew through an imaginary gate over New York and through another imaginary gate over London to determine the time, but the SR-71 also had to slow down for refueling over the Atlantic behind a special Boeing KC-135Q tanker.

At the end of the Farnborough Air Show where the SR-71 was on display for the first time outside of the United States, it set another record on the way home. This time it flew from London to Los Angeles a distance of 5,446.87 miles in just 3 hours, 47 minutes, 39 seconds. The flight required two refueling slow-downs, as well as other speed zones when flying over major U.S. cities.

A Blackbird also set the coast-to-coast record when it flew from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C. in 64 minutes, 20 seconds in 1990.
The last flight of the SR-71 took place on October 9, 1999.

A Blackbird stands on display at the Pima Air Museum in Tucson, AZ, in fact you walk under it to enter the museum. If you are ever near Tucson, stop in and take a look at the futuristic-looking plane.

My family and I have lived in Tucson, Arizona since 1978. The Pima Air Museum is in Tucson, where you can tour many of the old planes. It is a great museum, and the “bone yard” of all the old military planes is also in the same vicinity. It is not too far off of I-10 that runs through the city, so if you’re traveling through, it is an easy stop.

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SR-71, Commonly Called the Blackbird, Still Holds Speed Record From 1974

The muzzle velocity of a high powered 30-06 rifle bullet is 2910 feet per second. The Blackbird can fly at 3226 feet per second. Of course, that bullet starts to lose speed as it leaves the rifle barrel, but the Blackbird continues to fly at MACH 3+ and then accelerates faster, with each of its engines producing the power of 45 locomotives!

Developed during the middle of the cold war, the Lockheed SR-71 was designed as a reconnaissance aircraft that could fly fast enough to avoid being shot down by Russian aircraft or missiles. Initially developed as the A-12 for the CIA, the aircraft evolved and adapted many times over the 30 years it was in service.

The SR-71 was designed to fly more than three times the speed of sound. Beyond the sleek aerodynamics needed, one of the biggest challenges was developing an engine that could fly at such speeds. Rocket-powered aircraft could fly faster, but a rocket engine doesn’t need to worry about ingesting air, mixing it with fuel and then igniting the mixture to create thrust.

The challenge of an air-breathing jet engine, is the air must be traveling slower than Mach 1, the speed of sound, when it enters the engine. If supersonic air does reach a jet engine, the result is known as an “unstart” and the engine stalls and needs to be restarted in flight. Big problem if you’re flying over the Soviet Union with fighter planes chasing after you.
Because of the speeds flown by the SR-71, a much more complex inlet was needed to control the airflow. It has a spike-shaped cone located at the front of the air inlet that could be moved back and forth to control where the supersonic shock wave would enter the engine.

By carefully monitoring the aircraft speed, atmospheric conditions and engine parameters, the pilot could adjust the spike along with a series of doors. By doing this, a shock wave could actually be positioned in such a way that it would act as a speed bump of sorts and slow down the incoming air to Mach 0.6, the ideal speed for air to enter the jet engine.
The result was air would enter the inlet at approximately 2,100 mph, and within 20 feet, it would slow down to a speed of 600 mph. This didn’t always go according to plan, and unstarts would happen. Pilots describe the unpleasant event as a violent jerk to the side of the stalled engine and continued shaking, along with unwelcome noises until the engine could be restarted.

But, the result of all this complex air-inlet management was an engine that could push the SR-71 faster than any other jet aircraft. The official top speed was Mach 3.2, although pilots inadvertently flew as fast as Mach 3.5. Typical speeds would be around 3.0.

In 1974, on a flight to the Farnborough Air Show outside of London, Maj. James Sullivan and Maj. Noel Widdifield flew the SR-71 Blackbird from New York to London in 1 hour, 54 minutes, 56.4 seconds. The 1,806 mph flight still holds the transatlantic speed record between the two cities.

By comparison, the Concorde typically flew from New York to London in around three hours, and a 747 makes the trip in about six hours. The SR-71 did get a bit of a running start, because to time the trip, it flew through an imaginary gate over New York and through another imaginary gate over London to determine the time, but the SR-71 also had to slow down for refueling over the Atlantic behind a special Boeing KC-135Q tanker.

At the end of the Farnborough Air Show where the SR-71 was on display for the first time outside of the United States, it set another record on the way home. This time it flew from London to Los Angeles a distance of 5,446.87 miles in just 3 hours, 47 minutes, 39 seconds. The flight required two refueling slow-downs, as well as other speed zones when flying over major U.S. cities.

A Blackbird also set the coast-to-coast record when it flew from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C. in 64 minutes, 20 seconds in 1990.
The last flight of the SR-71 took place on October 9, 1999.

A Blackbird stands on display at the Pima Air Museum in Tucson, AZ, in fact you walk under it to enter the museum. If you are ever near Tucson, stop in and take a look at the futuristic-looking plane.

Clarence “Kelly” Johnson, a Lockheed aviation legend, wanted to design an airplane “that use conventional engines and fuel, but still be able to outrace any missile.”

Such motive compelled him to play a major role in designing 40 renowned aircraft, one of which is the Lockheed SR-71, a strategic reconnaissance aircraft developed from the Lockheed YF-12A and A-12 aircraft by the Lockheed Skunk Works.

Building the SR-71, which was popularly known as Blackbird but often called Sled or Habu by its crew, was not an easy task. Johnson had to invent it from scratch, from the design, the technology, to the materials. Despite the odds, he and his team were able to reduce the cost of some of SR-71’s major parts and design the aircraft’s many advanced concepts.

Years later, the SR-71 was one of the first aircrafts to be designed to reduce
radar cross section. Though it had a large radar signature to be tracked, the SR-71’s defense was high speed and operating altitude. Its standard evasive action was to simply accelerate speed if a surface-to-missile launch is detected.

It is such story of success that placed Johnson in the annals of aircraft design.
His success may also be attributed to his childhood passion for designing airplanes since he started reading Tom Swift novels like “Tom Swift and his Airplane” and “Tom Swift and his Submarine”. Born in 1910, seven years after the Wright Brothers made their first successful flight, Johnson designed his first airplane which he called “Merlin 1, Battle Plane”.

Johnson finished schooling through scholarships and odd jobs like dishwashing and working as teaching assistant. He received his Master of Science Degree in Aeronautical Engineering in 1933 from the University of Michigan where he got teaching fellowships and rented the University’s wind tunnel to test models of Indianapolis racing cars, aircrafts, and trains.

Starting out as a tool designer for Lockheed in 1933, he went on to serve the company for 50 years. He officially retired from Lockheed in 1975 but “continued as a consultant to the Skunk Works and the Lockheed projects.” As a tribute, the Lockheed Rye Canyon Research facility was renamed Kelly Johnson Research and Development Center in 1983.

In his lifetime as an aeronautical engineer, 1932-1984, Kelly was recognized for his unique contributions to aerospace development. He has received over 40 awards, prominent of which are his first and the last award- 1932 Sheehan Fellowship in Aeronautics, University of Michigan and the 1984 Honorary Royal Designer for Industry conferred by the Royal Society for the encouragement of the Arts, Manufacturers, and Commerce, London.

Johnson died on December 21, 1990 after an illness of many years. He left the aerospace development industry with an indelible mark on the design of 40 world renowned aircrafts. Among these aircrafts are the F-80, the first production jet in the US, double sonic F-104 Starfighter, U-2, 2,000 MPH YF-12A, and the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, a Mastercraft Collection bestseller.

Angelo Aguinaldo handles PR and copy writing for Mastercraft Collection, LLC. He has over 12 years of experience in marketing/communication for a university and has now shift to online marketing.

SR-71, Commonly Called the Blackbird, Still Holds Speed Record From 1974

The muzzle velocity of a high powered 30-06 rifle bullet is 2910 feet per second. The Blackbird can fly at 3226 feet per second. Of course, that bullet starts to lose speed as it leaves the rifle barrel, but the Blackbird continues to fly at MACH 3+ and then accelerates faster, with each of its engines producing the power of 45 locomotives!

Developed during the middle of the cold war, the Lockheed SR-71 was designed as a reconnaissance aircraft that could fly fast enough to avoid being shot down by Russian aircraft or missiles. Initially developed as the A-12 for the CIA, the aircraft evolved and adapted many times over the 30 years it was in service.

The SR-71 was designed to fly more than three times the speed of sound. Beyond the sleek aerodynamics needed, one of the biggest challenges was developing an engine that could fly at such speeds. Rocket-powered aircraft could fly faster, but a rocket engine doesn’t need to worry about ingesting air, mixing it with fuel and then igniting the mixture to create thrust.

The challenge of an air-breathing jet engine, is the air must be traveling slower than Mach 1, the speed of sound, when it enters the engine. If supersonic air does reach a jet engine, the result is known as an “unstart” and the engine stalls and needs to be restarted in flight. Big problem if you’re flying over the Soviet Union with fighter planes chasing after you.
Because of the speeds flown by the SR-71, a much more complex inlet was needed to control the airflow. It has a spike-shaped cone located at the front of the air inlet that could be moved back and forth to control where the supersonic shock wave would enter the engine.

By carefully monitoring the aircraft speed, atmospheric conditions and engine parameters, the pilot could adjust the spike along with a series of doors. By doing this, a shock wave could actually be positioned in such a way that it would act as a speed bump of sorts and slow down the incoming air to Mach 0.6, the ideal speed for air to enter the jet engine.
The result was air would enter the inlet at approximately 2,100 mph, and within 20 feet, it would slow down to a speed of 600 mph. This didn’t always go according to plan, and unstarts would happen. Pilots describe the unpleasant event as a violent jerk to the side of the stalled engine and continued shaking, along with unwelcome noises until the engine could be restarted.

But, the result of all this complex air-inlet management was an engine that could push the SR-71 faster than any other jet aircraft. The official top speed was Mach 3.2, although pilots inadvertently flew as fast as Mach 3.5. Typical speeds would be around 3.0.

In 1974, on a flight to the Farnborough Air Show outside of London, Maj. James Sullivan and Maj. Noel Widdifield flew the SR-71 Blackbird from New York to London in 1 hour, 54 minutes, 56.4 seconds. The 1,806 mph flight still holds the transatlantic speed record between the two cities.

By comparison, the Concorde typically flew from New York to London in around three hours, and a 747 makes the trip in about six hours. The SR-71 did get a bit of a running start, because to time the trip, it flew through an imaginary gate over New York and through another imaginary gate over London to determine the time, but the SR-71 also had to slow down for refueling over the Atlantic behind a special Boeing KC-135Q tanker.

At the end of the Farnborough Air Show where the SR-71 was on display for the first time outside of the United States, it set another record on the way home. This time it flew from London to Los Angeles a distance of 5,446.87 miles in just 3 hours, 47 minutes, 39 seconds. The flight required two refueling slow-downs, as well as other speed zones when flying over major U.S. cities.

A Blackbird also set the coast-to-coast record when it flew from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C. in 64 minutes, 20 seconds in 1990.
The last flight of the SR-71 took place on October 9, 1999.

A Blackbird stands on display at the Pima Air Museum in Tucson, AZ, in fact you walk under it to enter the museum. If you are ever near Tucson, stop in and take a look at the futuristic-looking plane.

Clarence “Kelly” Johnson, a Lockheed aviation legend, wanted to design an airplane “that use conventional engines and fuel, but still be able to outrace any missile.”

Such motive compelled him to play a major role in designing 40 renowned aircraft, one of which is the Lockheed SR-71, a strategic reconnaissance aircraft developed from the Lockheed YF-12A and A-12 aircraft by the Lockheed Skunk Works.

Building the SR-71, which was popularly known as Blackbird but often called Sled or Habu by its crew, was not an easy task. Johnson had to invent it from scratch, from the design, the technology, to the materials. Despite the odds, he and his team were able to reduce the cost of some of SR-71’s major parts and design the aircraft’s many advanced concepts.

Years later, the SR-71 was one of the first aircrafts to be designed to reduce
radar cross section. Though it had a large radar signature to be tracked, the SR-71’s defense was high speed and operating altitude. Its standard evasive action was to simply accelerate speed if a surface-to-missile launch is detected.

It is such story of success that placed Johnson in the annals of aircraft design.
His success may also be attributed to his childhood passion for designing airplanes since he started reading Tom Swift novels like “Tom Swift and his Airplane” and “Tom Swift and his Submarine”. Born in 1910, seven years after the Wright Brothers made their first successful flight, Johnson designed his first airplane which he called “Merlin 1, Battle Plane”.

Johnson finished schooling through scholarships and odd jobs like dishwashing and working as teaching assistant. He received his Master of Science Degree in Aeronautical Engineering in 1933 from the University of Michigan where he got teaching fellowships and rented the University’s wind tunnel to test models of Indianapolis racing cars, aircrafts, and trains.

Starting out as a tool designer for Lockheed in 1933, he went on to serve the company for 50 years. He officially retired from Lockheed in 1975 but “continued as a consultant to the Skunk Works and the Lockheed projects.” As a tribute, the Lockheed Rye Canyon Research facility was renamed Kelly Johnson Research and Development Center in 1983.

In his lifetime as an aeronautical engineer, 1932-1984, Kelly was recognized for his unique contributions to aerospace development. He has received over 40 awards, prominent of which are his first and the last award- 1932 Sheehan Fellowship in Aeronautics, University of Michigan and the 1984 Honorary Royal Designer for Industry conferred by the Royal Society for the encouragement of the Arts, Manufacturers, and Commerce, London.

Johnson died on December 21, 1990 after an illness of many years. He left the aerospace development industry with an indelible mark on the design of 40 world renowned aircrafts. Among these aircrafts are the F-80, the first production jet in the US, double sonic F-104 Starfighter, U-2, 2,000 MPH YF-12A, and the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, a Mastercraft Collection bestseller.

Since Joe E. Martin Sr. and Muhammad Ali, Manny Pacquiao and Freddie Roach have developed one of the most dynamic trainer and fighter combination. Freddie Roach has trained some of the greatest names in boxing such as Mike Tyson, Bernard Hopkins, and the former pupil he recently defeated, Oscar De La Hoya.  Roach will tell you however, that his star pupil would be none other than Manny Pacquiao himself.  Manny Pacquiao has even gone as far as calling Freddie Roach, “a gift sent from heaven”. Freddie Roach on numerous occasions has reciprocated by saying “Manny Pacquiao is like a son to me.”

The relationship between Roach and Manny Pacquiao has developed through the years into an unbreakable trust where each individual need each other in order to win.  Manny Pacquiao’s victory over Oscar De La Hoya was equally as important to Freddie Roach.  After Manny Pacquiao defeated De La Hoya, Roach basked in the celebration with as much elation as Pacquiao.  Roach’s prized student has just won the most important fight of his career and it was Roach who orchestrated the master strategy that clearly dominated the fight.  Roach would later say that, “This is the biggest win in my life” and this is from a trainer who has trained three other great champions.  Roach, who has Parkinson Disease prefers to be in his Wild Card Gym as much as possible but recently flew to the Philippines to celebrate Manny Pacquiao’s 30th birthday and flew back home to Los Angeles the next day.

Freddie Roach and Manny Pacquiao have also had their share of disagreements as naturally a father and son would have with one another.  In 2004, Roach threatened to quit the Pacquiao team after Roach refused to work with promoter Murad Muhammad any longer.  In 2006, Roach vehemently disagreed with Manny Pacquiao when Pacquiao spurned a better promotional deal with Oscar De La Hoya’s Golden Boy Production to remain in the clutches of Bob Arum’s Top Rank promotional company. Bob Arum has not always had the blessing of an honest promoter from the public’s point of view, but he has always delivered the big fights that the fans want to see.  Manny Pacquiao essentially made the decision based on Arum’s ability to put together the fights that will escalate his career and in return Pacquiao has not disappointed the fans with his electrifying fights by dedicating himself first with his training.

Manny Pacquiao and Freddie Roach may disagree about financial opportunities, what food to eat, and what color boxing trunks to wear but the fighter and his trainer are always on the same page when it comes to boxing.  Whatever Freddie Roach teaches and says, Manny Pacquiao listens and executes.  However hard Freddie Roach requires Manny Pacquiao to train, Manny Pacquiao will always go over the top to impress his teacher. After the fight with De La Hoya, Manny Pacquiao said, “Everything Freddie told me would happen, it happened.”  Manny Pacquiao is currently at the top of his game and Manny Pacquiao himself would say its because he puts all his trust to the trainer that is now like his father.

 

Manny Pacquiao Boxing Fansite: The pride of the Philippines, Manny Pacquiao continues to pour in the accolades for himself and his country.

SR-71, Commonly Called the Blackbird, Still Holds Speed Record From 1974

The muzzle velocity of a high powered 30-06 rifle bullet is 2910 feet per second. The Blackbird can fly at 3226 feet per second. Of course, that bullet starts to lose speed as it leaves the rifle barrel, but the Blackbird continues to fly at MACH 3+ and then accelerates faster, with each of its engines producing the power of 45 locomotives!

Developed during the middle of the cold war, the Lockheed SR-71 was designed as a reconnaissance aircraft that could fly fast enough to avoid being shot down by Russian aircraft or missiles. Initially developed as the A-12 for the CIA, the aircraft evolved and adapted many times over the 30 years it was in service.

The SR-71 was designed to fly more than three times the speed of sound. Beyond the sleek aerodynamics needed, one of the biggest challenges was developing an engine that could fly at such speeds. Rocket-powered aircraft could fly faster, but a rocket engine doesn’t need to worry about ingesting air, mixing it with fuel and then igniting the mixture to create thrust.

The challenge of an air-breathing jet engine, is the air must be traveling slower than Mach 1, the speed of sound, when it enters the engine. If supersonic air does reach a jet engine, the result is known as an “unstart” and the engine stalls and needs to be restarted in flight. Big problem if you’re flying over the Soviet Union with fighter planes chasing after you.
Because of the speeds flown by the SR-71, a much more complex inlet was needed to control the airflow. It has a spike-shaped cone located at the front of the air inlet that could be moved back and forth to control where the supersonic shock wave would enter the engine.

By carefully monitoring the aircraft speed, atmospheric conditions and engine parameters, the pilot could adjust the spike along with a series of doors. By doing this, a shock wave could actually be positioned in such a way that it would act as a speed bump of sorts and slow down the incoming air to Mach 0.6, the ideal speed for air to enter the jet engine.
The result was air would enter the inlet at approximately 2,100 mph, and within 20 feet, it would slow down to a speed of 600 mph. This didn’t always go according to plan, and unstarts would happen. Pilots describe the unpleasant event as a violent jerk to the side of the stalled engine and continued shaking, along with unwelcome noises until the engine could be restarted.

But, the result of all this complex air-inlet management was an engine that could push the SR-71 faster than any other jet aircraft. The official top speed was Mach 3.2, although pilots inadvertently flew as fast as Mach 3.5. Typical speeds would be around 3.0.

In 1974, on a flight to the Farnborough Air Show outside of London, Maj. James Sullivan and Maj. Noel Widdifield flew the SR-71 Blackbird from New York to London in 1 hour, 54 minutes, 56.4 seconds. The 1,806 mph flight still holds the transatlantic speed record between the two cities.

By comparison, the Concorde typically flew from New York to London in around three hours, and a 747 makes the trip in about six hours. The SR-71 did get a bit of a running start, because to time the trip, it flew through an imaginary gate over New York and through another imaginary gate over London to determine the time, but the SR-71 also had to slow down for refueling over the Atlantic behind a special Boeing KC-135Q tanker.

At the end of the Farnborough Air Show where the SR-71 was on display for the first time outside of the United States, it set another record on the way home. This time it flew from London to Los Angeles a distance of 5,446.87 miles in just 3 hours, 47 minutes, 39 seconds. The flight required two refueling slow-downs, as well as other speed zones when flying over major U.S. cities.

A Blackbird also set the coast-to-coast record when it flew from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C. in 64 minutes, 20 seconds in 1990.
The last flight of the SR-71 took place on October 9, 1999.

A Blackbird stands on display at the Pima Air Museum in Tucson, AZ, in fact you walk under it to enter the museum. If you are ever near Tucson, stop in and take a look at the futuristic-looking plane.

Clarence “Kelly” Johnson, a Lockheed aviation legend, wanted to design an airplane “that use conventional engines and fuel, but still be able to outrace any missile.”

Such motive compelled him to play a major role in designing 40 renowned aircraft, one of which is the Lockheed SR-71, a strategic reconnaissance aircraft developed from the Lockheed YF-12A and A-12 aircraft by the Lockheed Skunk Works.

Building the SR-71, which was popularly known as Blackbird but often called Sled or Habu by its crew, was not an easy task. Johnson had to invent it from scratch, from the design, the technology, to the materials. Despite the odds, he and his team were able to reduce the cost of some of SR-71’s major parts and design the aircraft’s many advanced concepts.

Years later, the SR-71 was one of the first aircrafts to be designed to reduce
radar cross section. Though it had a large radar signature to be tracked, the SR-71’s defense was high speed and operating altitude. Its standard evasive action was to simply accelerate speed if a surface-to-missile launch is detected.

It is such story of success that placed Johnson in the annals of aircraft design.
His success may also be attributed to his childhood passion for designing airplanes since he started reading Tom Swift novels like “Tom Swift and his Airplane” and “Tom Swift and his Submarine”. Born in 1910, seven years after the Wright Brothers made their first successful flight, Johnson designed his first airplane which he called “Merlin 1, Battle Plane”.

Johnson finished schooling through scholarships and odd jobs like dishwashing and working as teaching assistant. He received his Master of Science Degree in Aeronautical Engineering in 1933 from the University of Michigan where he got teaching fellowships and rented the University’s wind tunnel to test models of Indianapolis racing cars, aircrafts, and trains.

Starting out as a tool designer for Lockheed in 1933, he went on to serve the company for 50 years. He officially retired from Lockheed in 1975 but “continued as a consultant to the Skunk Works and the Lockheed projects.” As a tribute, the Lockheed Rye Canyon Research facility was renamed Kelly Johnson Research and Development Center in 1983.

In his lifetime as an aeronautical engineer, 1932-1984, Kelly was recognized for his unique contributions to aerospace development. He has received over 40 awards, prominent of which are his first and the last award- 1932 Sheehan Fellowship in Aeronautics, University of Michigan and the 1984 Honorary Royal Designer for Industry conferred by the Royal Society for the encouragement of the Arts, Manufacturers, and Commerce, London.

Johnson died on December 21, 1990 after an illness of many years. He left the aerospace development industry with an indelible mark on the design of 40 world renowned aircrafts. Among these aircrafts are the F-80, the first production jet in the US, double sonic F-104 Starfighter, U-2, 2,000 MPH YF-12A, and the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, a Mastercraft Collection bestseller.

Since Joe E. Martin Sr. and Muhammad Ali, Manny Pacquiao and Freddie Roach have developed one of the most dynamic trainer and fighter combination. Freddie Roach has trained some of the greatest names in boxing such as Mike Tyson, Bernard Hopkins, and the former pupil he recently defeated, Oscar De La Hoya.  Roach will tell you however, that his star pupil would be none other than Manny Pacquiao himself.  Manny Pacquiao has even gone as far as calling Freddie Roach, “a gift sent from heaven”. Freddie Roach on numerous occasions has reciprocated by saying “Manny Pacquiao is like a son to me.”

The relationship between Roach and Manny Pacquiao has developed through the years into an unbreakable trust where each individual need each other in order to win.  Manny Pacquiao’s victory over Oscar De La Hoya was equally as important to Freddie Roach.  After Manny Pacquiao defeated De La Hoya, Roach basked in the celebration with as much elation as Pacquiao.  Roach’s prized student has just won the most important fight of his career and it was Roach who orchestrated the master strategy that clearly dominated the fight.  Roach would later say that, “This is the biggest win in my life” and this is from a trainer who has trained three other great champions.  Roach, who has Parkinson Disease prefers to be in his Wild Card Gym as much as possible but recently flew to the Philippines to celebrate Manny Pacquiao’s 30th birthday and flew back home to Los Angeles the next day.

Freddie Roach and Manny Pacquiao have also had their share of disagreements as naturally a father and son would have with one another.  In 2004, Roach threatened to quit the Pacquiao team after Roach refused to work with promoter Murad Muhammad any longer.  In 2006, Roach vehemently disagreed with Manny Pacquiao when Pacquiao spurned a better promotional deal with Oscar De La Hoya’s Golden Boy Production to remain in the clutches of Bob Arum’s Top Rank promotional company. Bob Arum has not always had the blessing of an honest promoter from the public’s point of view, but he has always delivered the big fights that the fans want to see.  Manny Pacquiao essentially made the decision based on Arum’s ability to put together the fights that will escalate his career and in return Pacquiao has not disappointed the fans with his electrifying fights by dedicating himself first with his training.

Manny Pacquiao and Freddie Roach may disagree about financial opportunities, what food to eat, and what color boxing trunks to wear but the fighter and his trainer are always on the same page when it comes to boxing.  Whatever Freddie Roach teaches and says, Manny Pacquiao listens and executes.  However hard Freddie Roach requires Manny Pacquiao to train, Manny Pacquiao will always go over the top to impress his teacher. After the fight with De La Hoya, Manny Pacquiao said, “Everything Freddie told me would happen, it happened.”  Manny Pacquiao is currently at the top of his game and Manny Pacquiao himself would say its because he puts all his trust to the trainer that is now like his father.

 

In India, school for kids is divided into three stages – Playgroup, Junior Kindergarten (Jr. KG) or Lower Kindergarten (LKG) and Senior Kindergarten (Sr. KG) or Upper Kindergarten (UKG). Typically, a Playgroup consists of children of age group from one and half to two and half years. Jr. KG class would comprise children three and half to four and half years of age, and the Sr. KG class would comprise children four and half to five and half years of age.

The kindergarten is a place where young children learn as they play with materials and cope up to live with other children and teachers. It is also a place where adults can learn; they observe children and participate with them. It can serve as a laboratory for the study of human relations.

The value of Kindergarten as a laboratory for studying about people will depend, in part, on the opportunities children may have there for play and for relationships with others.

The main objectives of kindergarten school are:

* To develop a good physique, adequate muscular co-ordination and basic motor skill in the child.
* To develop good health habits and to build up basic skills necessary for personal adjustments such as dressing themselves, toilet and eating habits.
* To develop emotional maturity by guiding the child to express, understand, accept and control his feelings and emotions.
* To develop good desirable social attitudes, manners and to encourage healthy group participation.
* To encourage aesthetic appreciation (art, music, beauty, etc.)
* To stimulate the childs beginning of intellectual curiosities concerning his immediate environment.
* To encourage the childs independence and creativity by providing him with sufficient opportunities.

The school is an opportunity for progress of the student. Each one is having the freedom to develop freely.

In most cases the pre-school is run as a private school. Younger children may also be put into a special toddler/nursery group at the age of 2. It is run as part of the kindergarten.

After finishing senior kindergarten, a child enters Class 1 or Standard 1 of primary school. Often kindergarten is an integral part of regular schools, though sometimes they are independent units and are often part of a larger chain.

The pressure to succeed at school begins even earlier than ever. Children in kindergarten and first grade are held to a standard of success that their parents never had to worry about. While in the past those first few years of schooling were pressure free and simply intended to introduce children to formal education, today children are tested on their knowledge and ability within the first weeks of kindergarten and that testing continues throughout the rest of their public school
education.

This places an enormous pressure on young children and yet many parents are not doing everything they can to give their child the edge and help them succeed at school. Giving your child the edge does not mean hiring a tutor, buying an expensive educational program, or spending hours every day drilling your child. There are several simple steps every parent can take to give their child the edge at school.
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Hi, This is Manish Sing from http://www.indian-seo.com , KKBLR is a play school based on many country .You can visit KKBLR here : http://kkblr.com

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