Oxcarbazepine kaufen online

Treating Bipolar Disorder with Medication What are the Options? What are the Treatment Options for Bipolar Disorder?

Medications are always an issue that you should discuss with your psychiatrist. The information that is provided here is meant to be informational only. Your psychiatrist can answer your specific questions and is trained in this field. However, sometimes you don’t get all your questions answered in the office, or another one pops into your mind when you get home.

A drug is said to be a mood stabilizer if it provides relief from acute episodes of mania or depression, or prevent them from occurring and it does not worsen depression or mania or lead to increased cycling. There are four classes of medications being used for stabilization of bipolar disorder:

– Lithium
– Anticonvulsants
– Antidepressants
– Antipsychotics

Lithium is by far the oldest known mood stabilizer known and used in the United States. It was discovered in the 1950’s and has been used as a mood stabilizer since the 1970’s. Blood level must be monitored to adjust the level of the compound for toxicity, which is the number one problem with this drug. So why take Lithium? Because, to date, it is still considered the front line treatment for Bipolar Disorder. Lithium is most effective for individuals with “pure” or euphoric mania, where there is little depression mixed in with elevated mood. Lithium has a clear track record of reducing the risk of suicide.

Anticonvulsants
Valproate (Depakote)
has been used for many years as an anticonvulsant, treating seizures. There has been a lot of research in the use of Depakote with Bipolar Disorder, and some physicians feel that it is just as effective as lithium with fewer side effects. Depakote can be given in large initial doses and works quickly and well with rapid cycling manic symptoms. Potential side effects are weight gain, tremor, dizziness, sedation, headache, nausea, indigestion, bruising, and hair loss. Valproate may cause a mild liver inflammation and may affect the production of a type of blood cell called platelets. Although it is quite rare for there to be any serious complications from these potential effects, it is important to monitor liver function tests and platelet counts periodically.

Lamotrigine (Lamictal) Serious rash is its only major side effect, and it occurs more frequently in children than in adults.

Carbamazepine (Tegretol) Potential side effects include: aplastic anemia, hepatic toxicity, impaired learning and memory, emotional affects such as irritability and agitation, insomnia, changes in vision, fatigue, nausea, water retention, weight gain, dermatitis, and pancreatitis.

Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) Potential side effects include: dizziness, nausea, headache, diarrhea, vomiting, upper respiratory tract infection, constipation, dyspepsia, ataxia, nervousness. The major advantage of Gabapentin (Neurontin) is its relative safety and lack of interactions with other drugs. Its major drawback is that it doesn’t work. A study was sponsored by Parke-Davis in preparation, and gabapentin was found to be no better than placebo when used as a mood stabilizer. In use with other medications, gabapentin seems to be useful in managing anxiety and violent behavior. Side effects of gabapentin can include fatigue and tiredness, sedation, and lightheadedness.

Topiramate (Topamax) is yet another anticonvulsant with mood stabilizing effects for some patients. It seems to help with anxiety and a number of eating disorders. Topamax is used clinically for migraine headaches. The most common adverse events were sweating, fuzzy vision, difficulty sleeping, tremor, cognitive slowing or memory problems, and numbness and tingling in the hands and feet.

Antidepressants

Antidepressants treat the symptoms of depression. In bipolar disorder, an antidepressant will be paired with a mood stabilizing medication (e.g. lithium, Depakote, Lamictal). Without the mood stabilizer, an antidepressant can actually cause a manic state for a person with bipolar disorder. There are many antidepressants on the market. Not every antidepressant is the same, and they have different properties. They all also have different potential side effects.

Antipsychotics

Antipsychotic medications are sometimes used when there is severe depression, mania, hallucinations, or delusions, which sometimes occurs with bipolar disorder.

There are two other ways that antipsychotics are used in bipolar treatment, even if no none of the above are present. They have sedating properties and may be used for insomnia or anxiety. Researchers have found that the newer atypical antipsychotic medications behave as mood stabilizers and may help control depressive or manic symptoms. In this way the newer atypical antipsychotic medications may actually be prescribed in place of mood stabilizers. Characteristic side effects of the atypical antipsychotics include tiredness and weight gain.

Ask any specific questions you have from your psychiatrist.

Cheryl L. McKinzie, M.S., M.A, LPCI [http://www.McKinzieCounseling.com]

Article Source:
http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Cheryl_McKinzie/96433

Treating Bipolar Disorder with Medication What are the Options? What are the Treatment Options for Bipolar Disorder?

Medications are always an issue that you should discuss with your psychiatrist. The information that is provided here is meant to be informational only. Your psychiatrist can answer your specific questions and is trained in this field. However, sometimes you don’t get all your questions answered in the office, or another one pops into your mind when you get home.

A drug is said to be a mood stabilizer if it provides relief from acute episodes of mania or depression, or prevent them from occurring and it does not worsen depression or mania or lead to increased cycling. There are four classes of medications being used for stabilization of bipolar disorder:

– Lithium
– Anticonvulsants
– Antidepressants
– Antipsychotics

Lithium is by far the oldest known mood stabilizer known and used in the United States. It was discovered in the 1950’s and has been used as a mood stabilizer since the 1970’s. Blood level must be monitored to adjust the level of the compound for toxicity, which is the number one problem with this drug. So why take Lithium? Because, to date, it is still considered the front line treatment for Bipolar Disorder. Lithium is most effective for individuals with “pure” or euphoric mania, where there is little depression mixed in with elevated mood. Lithium has a clear track record of reducing the risk of suicide.

Anticonvulsants
Valproate (Depakote)
has been used for many years as an anticonvulsant, treating seizures. There has been a lot of research in the use of Depakote with Bipolar Disorder, and some physicians feel that it is just as effective as lithium with fewer side effects. Depakote can be given in large initial doses and works quickly and well with rapid cycling manic symptoms. Potential side effects are weight gain, tremor, dizziness, sedation, headache, nausea, indigestion, bruising, and hair loss. Valproate may cause a mild liver inflammation and may affect the production of a type of blood cell called platelets. Although it is quite rare for there to be any serious complications from these potential effects, it is important to monitor liver function tests and platelet counts periodically.

Lamotrigine (Lamictal) Serious rash is its only major side effect, and it occurs more frequently in children than in adults.

Carbamazepine (Tegretol) Potential side effects include: aplastic anemia, hepatic toxicity, impaired learning and memory, emotional affects such as irritability and agitation, insomnia, changes in vision, fatigue, nausea, water retention, weight gain, dermatitis, and pancreatitis.

Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) Potential side effects include: dizziness, nausea, headache, diarrhea, vomiting, upper respiratory tract infection, constipation, dyspepsia, ataxia, nervousness. The major advantage of Gabapentin (Neurontin) is its relative safety and lack of interactions with other drugs. Its major drawback is that it doesn’t work. A study was sponsored by Parke-Davis in preparation, and gabapentin was found to be no better than placebo when used as a mood stabilizer. In use with other medications, gabapentin seems to be useful in managing anxiety and violent behavior. Side effects of gabapentin can include fatigue and tiredness, sedation, and lightheadedness.

Topiramate (Topamax) is yet another anticonvulsant with mood stabilizing effects for some patients. It seems to help with anxiety and a number of eating disorders. Topamax is used clinically for migraine headaches. The most common adverse events were sweating, fuzzy vision, difficulty sleeping, tremor, cognitive slowing or memory problems, and numbness and tingling in the hands and feet.

Antidepressants

Antidepressants treat the symptoms of depression. In bipolar disorder, an antidepressant will be paired with a mood stabilizing medication (e.g. lithium, Depakote, Lamictal). Without the mood stabilizer, an antidepressant can actually cause a manic state for a person with bipolar disorder. There are many antidepressants on the market. Not every antidepressant is the same, and they have different properties. They all also have different potential side effects.

Antipsychotics

Antipsychotic medications are sometimes used when there is severe depression, mania, hallucinations, or delusions, which sometimes occurs with bipolar disorder.

There are two other ways that antipsychotics are used in bipolar treatment, even if no none of the above are present. They have sedating properties and may be used for insomnia or anxiety. Researchers have found that the newer atypical antipsychotic medications behave as mood stabilizers and may help control depressive or manic symptoms. In this way the newer atypical antipsychotic medications may actually be prescribed in place of mood stabilizers. Characteristic side effects of the atypical antipsychotics include tiredness and weight gain.

Ask any specific questions you have from your psychiatrist.

It’s not uncommon to see a person who suffers from bipolar disorder go undiagnosed for close to eight years. Though proper treatments are available, they are still going undiagnosed or are getting inadequate treatment.

When the illness is left untreated, it can cause an assortment of trouble in the person’s life. It is important they be diagnosed soon as symptoms start so treatment can get started.

There are numerous treatments for bipolar disorder and while some may fail, others are very triumphant in controlling the illness.

Sometimes patients tend to give up on medicines because they feel it’s just not working. This can be dangerous because any lapse from taking the medication can cause a relapse in episodes. Compliance is another factor in the dealing of the disease.

Treatment Stages – Acute and Preventive

In the Acute stage, the idea is to end current depression, hypomanic, mixed mood swings and manic. Preventative measures calls for a continuation in the therapeutic process to handling future episodes.

Medication, psychotherapy and education are all forms of treatment. Medication therapy is important for all of the patients during both stages.

Patients and families can find relief in more than usual bipolar disorder symptoms during psychotherapy sessions.

Because this disease is complex, families and patients need to be aware of what its symptoms are and how it can be managed. Education of this disease is important so people know what to expect.

Despite which treatment the patient, family and physician chooses, the main goal is to decrease the amount of episodes the bipolar person has…prevent it from cycling from each mood stage. It would be beneficial to have the mood disruptions decrease in intensity as well as frequency. This would also help the patient while they are in between episodes.

During talk therapy before medication or other treatment is prescribed, the physician must first identify what caused the initial outburst. The, the doctor will assess for other problems such as emotional or medical that could hinder the patient’s treatment and recovery.

Treatments available

There are several medications that can be used to help bipolar patients in their daily lives.

1. Mood Stabilizers – this is the core of bipolar medicinal treatment. They are efficient in acute stages of depression and even psychotic mania. It can also be used as a maintenance drug. The most commonly prescribed drugs in this area are Lithium and Valporate. The drugs act as a stimulate.

2. Atypical Antipsychotic- this is a mood stabilizer that can also be prescribed for schizophrenia. There are five kinds of medication offered in this treatment. They are: Olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone and ariprazol can be used for bipolar mania and mixed episodes. However, only Quetiapine is only allowed for mixed episodes.
The best thing about the drugs is that they can be used alone or combined with other drugs to help ward of the symptoms of the disease.

3. Antiseizure medications – this is typically given to patients who have rapid bipolar cycling with mixed episodes of mania, depression and those who have suffered from substance abuse. Three antiseizure medicines given are: carbamazepine, lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine.

4. Electroconvulsive therapy – ordered on patients who suffer from acute emotional stages.

5. Sleep Management and Psychotherapy – used with medications for bipolar disorder.

There are side effects with the medication like anything else. Some of these can include: weight gain, high cholesterol, diabetes. A diet should be followed and education on dietary intake is necessary. This can help in the reduction of these effects.

With friends and family behind the loved one, then it is possible for the patient to live a “normal” life.

Abhishek has got some great Bipolar Disorder Treatment Secrets up his sleeve! Download his FREE 97 Pages Ebook, “Understanding And Treating Bipolar Disorders!” from his website http://www.Health-Whiz.com/69/index.htm. Only limited Free Copies available.

Article Source:
http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Abhishek_Agarwal/34694

Treating Bipolar Disorder with Medication What are the Options? What are the Treatment Options for Bipolar Disorder?

Medications are always an issue that you should discuss with your psychiatrist. The information that is provided here is meant to be informational only. Your psychiatrist can answer your specific questions and is trained in this field. However, sometimes you don’t get all your questions answered in the office, or another one pops into your mind when you get home.

A drug is said to be a mood stabilizer if it provides relief from acute episodes of mania or depression, or prevent them from occurring and it does not worsen depression or mania or lead to increased cycling. There are four classes of medications being used for stabilization of bipolar disorder:

– Lithium
– Anticonvulsants
– Antidepressants
– Antipsychotics

Lithium is by far the oldest known mood stabilizer known and used in the United States. It was discovered in the 1950’s and has been used as a mood stabilizer since the 1970’s. Blood level must be monitored to adjust the level of the compound for toxicity, which is the number one problem with this drug. So why take Lithium? Because, to date, it is still considered the front line treatment for Bipolar Disorder. Lithium is most effective for individuals with “pure” or euphoric mania, where there is little depression mixed in with elevated mood. Lithium has a clear track record of reducing the risk of suicide.

Anticonvulsants
Valproate (Depakote)
has been used for many years as an anticonvulsant, treating seizures. There has been a lot of research in the use of Depakote with Bipolar Disorder, and some physicians feel that it is just as effective as lithium with fewer side effects. Depakote can be given in large initial doses and works quickly and well with rapid cycling manic symptoms. Potential side effects are weight gain, tremor, dizziness, sedation, headache, nausea, indigestion, bruising, and hair loss. Valproate may cause a mild liver inflammation and may affect the production of a type of blood cell called platelets. Although it is quite rare for there to be any serious complications from these potential effects, it is important to monitor liver function tests and platelet counts periodically.

Lamotrigine (Lamictal) Serious rash is its only major side effect, and it occurs more frequently in children than in adults.

Carbamazepine (Tegretol) Potential side effects include: aplastic anemia, hepatic toxicity, impaired learning and memory, emotional affects such as irritability and agitation, insomnia, changes in vision, fatigue, nausea, water retention, weight gain, dermatitis, and pancreatitis.

Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) Potential side effects include: dizziness, nausea, headache, diarrhea, vomiting, upper respiratory tract infection, constipation, dyspepsia, ataxia, nervousness. The major advantage of Gabapentin (Neurontin) is its relative safety and lack of interactions with other drugs. Its major drawback is that it doesn’t work. A study was sponsored by Parke-Davis in preparation, and gabapentin was found to be no better than placebo when used as a mood stabilizer. In use with other medications, gabapentin seems to be useful in managing anxiety and violent behavior. Side effects of gabapentin can include fatigue and tiredness, sedation, and lightheadedness.

Topiramate (Topamax) is yet another anticonvulsant with mood stabilizing effects for some patients. It seems to help with anxiety and a number of eating disorders. Topamax is used clinically for migraine headaches. The most common adverse events were sweating, fuzzy vision, difficulty sleeping, tremor, cognitive slowing or memory problems, and numbness and tingling in the hands and feet.

Antidepressants

Antidepressants treat the symptoms of depression. In bipolar disorder, an antidepressant will be paired with a mood stabilizing medication (e.g. lithium, Depakote, Lamictal). Without the mood stabilizer, an antidepressant can actually cause a manic state for a person with bipolar disorder. There are many antidepressants on the market. Not every antidepressant is the same, and they have different properties. They all also have different potential side effects.

Antipsychotics

Antipsychotic medications are sometimes used when there is severe depression, mania, hallucinations, or delusions, which sometimes occurs with bipolar disorder.

There are two other ways that antipsychotics are used in bipolar treatment, even if no none of the above are present. They have sedating properties and may be used for insomnia or anxiety. Researchers have found that the newer atypical antipsychotic medications behave as mood stabilizers and may help control depressive or manic symptoms. In this way the newer atypical antipsychotic medications may actually be prescribed in place of mood stabilizers. Characteristic side effects of the atypical antipsychotics include tiredness and weight gain.

Ask any specific questions you have from your psychiatrist.

It’s not uncommon to see a person who suffers from bipolar disorder go undiagnosed for close to eight years. Though proper treatments are available, they are still going undiagnosed or are getting inadequate treatment.

When the illness is left untreated, it can cause an assortment of trouble in the person’s life. It is important they be diagnosed soon as symptoms start so treatment can get started.

There are numerous treatments for bipolar disorder and while some may fail, others are very triumphant in controlling the illness.

Sometimes patients tend to give up on medicines because they feel it’s just not working. This can be dangerous because any lapse from taking the medication can cause a relapse in episodes. Compliance is another factor in the dealing of the disease.

Treatment Stages – Acute and Preventive

In the Acute stage, the idea is to end current depression, hypomanic, mixed mood swings and manic. Preventative measures calls for a continuation in the therapeutic process to handling future episodes.

Medication, psychotherapy and education are all forms of treatment. Medication therapy is important for all of the patients during both stages.

Patients and families can find relief in more than usual bipolar disorder symptoms during psychotherapy sessions.

Because this disease is complex, families and patients need to be aware of what its symptoms are and how it can be managed. Education of this disease is important so people know what to expect.

Despite which treatment the patient, family and physician chooses, the main goal is to decrease the amount of episodes the bipolar person has…prevent it from cycling from each mood stage. It would be beneficial to have the mood disruptions decrease in intensity as well as frequency. This would also help the patient while they are in between episodes.

During talk therapy before medication or other treatment is prescribed, the physician must first identify what caused the initial outburst. The, the doctor will assess for other problems such as emotional or medical that could hinder the patient’s treatment and recovery.

Treatments available

There are several medications that can be used to help bipolar patients in their daily lives.

1. Mood Stabilizers – this is the core of bipolar medicinal treatment. They are efficient in acute stages of depression and even psychotic mania. It can also be used as a maintenance drug. The most commonly prescribed drugs in this area are Lithium and Valporate. The drugs act as a stimulate.

2. Atypical Antipsychotic- this is a mood stabilizer that can also be prescribed for schizophrenia. There are five kinds of medication offered in this treatment. They are: Olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone and ariprazol can be used for bipolar mania and mixed episodes. However, only Quetiapine is only allowed for mixed episodes.
The best thing about the drugs is that they can be used alone or combined with other drugs to help ward of the symptoms of the disease.

3. Antiseizure medications – this is typically given to patients who have rapid bipolar cycling with mixed episodes of mania, depression and those who have suffered from substance abuse. Three antiseizure medicines given are: carbamazepine, lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine.

4. Electroconvulsive therapy – ordered on patients who suffer from acute emotional stages.

5. Sleep Management and Psychotherapy – used with medications for bipolar disorder.

There are side effects with the medication like anything else. Some of these can include: weight gain, high cholesterol, diabetes. A diet should be followed and education on dietary intake is necessary. This can help in the reduction of these effects.

With friends and family behind the loved one, then it is possible for the patient to live a “normal” life.

Yasmin and Yaz are two most popular brands of birth control pills in U.S.A. Both are combined oral contraceptive pills, which contain special progestin hormone called drospirenone, which is not found in other combined pills. Both the pills contain two main hormones: drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol, which protect against pregnancy up to 99% if taken as directed.

In a recent report published in the well-known contraception journal, physicians have stressed that some of the medicines that used to raise potassium may interact with birth control pills containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol, which very much present in Yasmin and Yaz. It is so because both these pills may increase potassium level and interaction with medicines, which are also responsible for raising potassium level, may cause highest potassium level at the alarming level. Potassium retention is found in the medicines that are recommended for high blood pressure, treatment for heart problems, anti-inflammatory medicines (like Ibuprofen). Similarly, this level could also be found in “water retention” types of pills like diuretics.

Now, both Yasmin and Yaz birth control pills come with product label instruction for physicians and healthcare providers recommending these products to monitor the serum potassium levels in the first month for those patients who are also under treatment with other potassium retention drugs.

It has been found that 18% of women were taking Yasmin birth control pills along with other potassium retaining drug, surprisingly, this 30% of such cases happened in the first month of the Yasmin birth control pills dosage. Family practice or physicians or OB/GYN prescribes almost 18% of women who are taking Yasmin with other potassium retaining medicines at the same time.

What drug(s) may interact with drospirenone; ethinyl estradiol?

1. anastrozole

2. antibiotics or medicines for infections, especially rifampin, rifabutin, rifapentine, and griseofulvin 3. aprepitant, a medicine used for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

4. barbiturate medicines for producing sleep or treating seizures (convulsions)

5. bosentan

6. carbamazepine

7. caffeine

8. clofibrate

9. cyclosporine

10. dantrolene

11. doxercalciferol

12. exemestane

13. grapefruit juice

14. hydrocortisone

15. letrozole

16. medicines for anxiety or sleeping problems, such as diazepam or temazepam

17. medicines for mental depression

18. medicines for diabetes, including troglitazone and pioglitazone

19. mineral oil

20. modafinil

21. mycophenolate

22. nefazodone

23. oxcarbazepine

24. phenytoin

25. prednisolone

26. ritonavir or other medicines for HIV infection or AIDS

27. selegiline

28. soy isoflavones supplements

29. St. John’s wort

30. tamoxifen or raloxifene

31. testolactone

32. theophylline

33. topiramate

34. warfarin

Drugs that can increase your potassium level include:

certain medications for high blood pressure or heart conditions (examples include ACE-inhibitors like Altace®, Capoten®, Lotensin®, Mavik®, Monopril®, Prinivil®, Univasc®, Vasotec®, Zestril®, and also Angiotensin-II receptor blockers like Atacand®, Avapro®, Cozaar®, Diovan®, Micardis®), as well as Eplerenone (Inspra(TM))
dietary salt substitutes (these may contain potassium)
heparin
NSAIDs (antiinflammatory drugs which include Advil®, Aleve®, Ansaid®, Cataflam®, Clinoril®, Daypro®, Feldene®, Indocin®, Lodine®, Naprosyn®, Orudis®, Motrin®, Voltaren®, and others) if they are taken long-term and daily, like for arthritis
potassium supplements
some ‘water pills’ (diuretics like spironolactone or Aldactone®, Dyazide®, Midamor®, Moduretic®, and others)

Since the Yasmin and YAZ are two popular brands among women and if you are planning to go for either of them for your contraception needs, please inform your physician or healthcare provider if you were on any other type of medicine, specially those described above potassium raising drugs.

Please visit at http://www.mybirthcontrolstore.com to know more about contraception.

Linda Crowford is an author for many successful articles and ebooks written on women’s health, birth control, pregnancy issues and human relationship specially romance, dating, marriage and divorce. She is also associated with Yasmin and Yaz to know more about these medicines.

Article Source:
http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Linda_Crowford/43533

Treating Bipolar Disorder with Medication What are the Options? What are the Treatment Options for Bipolar Disorder?

Medications are always an issue that you should discuss with your psychiatrist. The information that is provided here is meant to be informational only. Your psychiatrist can answer your specific questions and is trained in this field. However, sometimes you don’t get all your questions answered in the office, or another one pops into your mind when you get home.

A drug is said to be a mood stabilizer if it provides relief from acute episodes of mania or depression, or prevent them from occurring and it does not worsen depression or mania or lead to increased cycling. There are four classes of medications being used for stabilization of bipolar disorder:

– Lithium
– Anticonvulsants
– Antidepressants
– Antipsychotics

Lithium is by far the oldest known mood stabilizer known and used in the United States. It was discovered in the 1950’s and has been used as a mood stabilizer since the 1970’s. Blood level must be monitored to adjust the level of the compound for toxicity, which is the number one problem with this drug. So why take Lithium? Because, to date, it is still considered the front line treatment for Bipolar Disorder. Lithium is most effective for individuals with “pure” or euphoric mania, where there is little depression mixed in with elevated mood. Lithium has a clear track record of reducing the risk of suicide.

Anticonvulsants
Valproate (Depakote)
has been used for many years as an anticonvulsant, treating seizures. There has been a lot of research in the use of Depakote with Bipolar Disorder, and some physicians feel that it is just as effective as lithium with fewer side effects. Depakote can be given in large initial doses and works quickly and well with rapid cycling manic symptoms. Potential side effects are weight gain, tremor, dizziness, sedation, headache, nausea, indigestion, bruising, and hair loss. Valproate may cause a mild liver inflammation and may affect the production of a type of blood cell called platelets. Although it is quite rare for there to be any serious complications from these potential effects, it is important to monitor liver function tests and platelet counts periodically.

Lamotrigine (Lamictal) Serious rash is its only major side effect, and it occurs more frequently in children than in adults.

Carbamazepine (Tegretol) Potential side effects include: aplastic anemia, hepatic toxicity, impaired learning and memory, emotional affects such as irritability and agitation, insomnia, changes in vision, fatigue, nausea, water retention, weight gain, dermatitis, and pancreatitis.

Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) Potential side effects include: dizziness, nausea, headache, diarrhea, vomiting, upper respiratory tract infection, constipation, dyspepsia, ataxia, nervousness. The major advantage of Gabapentin (Neurontin) is its relative safety and lack of interactions with other drugs. Its major drawback is that it doesn’t work. A study was sponsored by Parke-Davis in preparation, and gabapentin was found to be no better than placebo when used as a mood stabilizer. In use with other medications, gabapentin seems to be useful in managing anxiety and violent behavior. Side effects of gabapentin can include fatigue and tiredness, sedation, and lightheadedness.

Topiramate (Topamax) is yet another anticonvulsant with mood stabilizing effects for some patients. It seems to help with anxiety and a number of eating disorders. Topamax is used clinically for migraine headaches. The most common adverse events were sweating, fuzzy vision, difficulty sleeping, tremor, cognitive slowing or memory problems, and numbness and tingling in the hands and feet.

Antidepressants

Antidepressants treat the symptoms of depression. In bipolar disorder, an antidepressant will be paired with a mood stabilizing medication (e.g. lithium, Depakote, Lamictal). Without the mood stabilizer, an antidepressant can actually cause a manic state for a person with bipolar disorder. There are many antidepressants on the market. Not every antidepressant is the same, and they have different properties. They all also have different potential side effects.

Antipsychotics

Antipsychotic medications are sometimes used when there is severe depression, mania, hallucinations, or delusions, which sometimes occurs with bipolar disorder.

There are two other ways that antipsychotics are used in bipolar treatment, even if no none of the above are present. They have sedating properties and may be used for insomnia or anxiety. Researchers have found that the newer atypical antipsychotic medications behave as mood stabilizers and may help control depressive or manic symptoms. In this way the newer atypical antipsychotic medications may actually be prescribed in place of mood stabilizers. Characteristic side effects of the atypical antipsychotics include tiredness and weight gain.

Ask any specific questions you have from your psychiatrist.

It’s not uncommon to see a person who suffers from bipolar disorder go undiagnosed for close to eight years. Though proper treatments are available, they are still going undiagnosed or are getting inadequate treatment.

When the illness is left untreated, it can cause an assortment of trouble in the person’s life. It is important they be diagnosed soon as symptoms start so treatment can get started.

There are numerous treatments for bipolar disorder and while some may fail, others are very triumphant in controlling the illness.

Sometimes patients tend to give up on medicines because they feel it’s just not working. This can be dangerous because any lapse from taking the medication can cause a relapse in episodes. Compliance is another factor in the dealing of the disease.

Treatment Stages – Acute and Preventive

In the Acute stage, the idea is to end current depression, hypomanic, mixed mood swings and manic. Preventative measures calls for a continuation in the therapeutic process to handling future episodes.

Medication, psychotherapy and education are all forms of treatment. Medication therapy is important for all of the patients during both stages.

Patients and families can find relief in more than usual bipolar disorder symptoms during psychotherapy sessions.

Because this disease is complex, families and patients need to be aware of what its symptoms are and how it can be managed. Education of this disease is important so people know what to expect.

Despite which treatment the patient, family and physician chooses, the main goal is to decrease the amount of episodes the bipolar person has…prevent it from cycling from each mood stage. It would be beneficial to have the mood disruptions decrease in intensity as well as frequency. This would also help the patient while they are in between episodes.

During talk therapy before medication or other treatment is prescribed, the physician must first identify what caused the initial outburst. The, the doctor will assess for other problems such as emotional or medical that could hinder the patient’s treatment and recovery.

Treatments available

There are several medications that can be used to help bipolar patients in their daily lives.

1. Mood Stabilizers – this is the core of bipolar medicinal treatment. They are efficient in acute stages of depression and even psychotic mania. It can also be used as a maintenance drug. The most commonly prescribed drugs in this area are Lithium and Valporate. The drugs act as a stimulate.

2. Atypical Antipsychotic- this is a mood stabilizer that can also be prescribed for schizophrenia. There are five kinds of medication offered in this treatment. They are: Olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone and ariprazol can be used for bipolar mania and mixed episodes. However, only Quetiapine is only allowed for mixed episodes.
The best thing about the drugs is that they can be used alone or combined with other drugs to help ward of the symptoms of the disease.

3. Antiseizure medications – this is typically given to patients who have rapid bipolar cycling with mixed episodes of mania, depression and those who have suffered from substance abuse. Three antiseizure medicines given are: carbamazepine, lamotrigine and oxcarbazepine.

4. Electroconvulsive therapy – ordered on patients who suffer from acute emotional stages.

5. Sleep Management and Psychotherapy – used with medications for bipolar disorder.

There are side effects with the medication like anything else. Some of these can include: weight gain, high cholesterol, diabetes. A diet should be followed and education on dietary intake is necessary. This can help in the reduction of these effects.

With friends and family behind the loved one, then it is possible for the patient to live a “normal” life.

Yasmin and Yaz are two most popular brands of birth control pills in U.S.A. Both are combined oral contraceptive pills, which contain special progestin hormone called drospirenone, which is not found in other combined pills. Both the pills contain two main hormones: drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol, which protect against pregnancy up to 99% if taken as directed.

In a recent report published in the well-known contraception journal, physicians have stressed that some of the medicines that used to raise potassium may interact with birth control pills containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol, which very much present in Yasmin and Yaz. It is so because both these pills may increase potassium level and interaction with medicines, which are also responsible for raising potassium level, may cause highest potassium level at the alarming level. Potassium retention is found in the medicines that are recommended for high blood pressure, treatment for heart problems, anti-inflammatory medicines (like Ibuprofen). Similarly, this level could also be found in “water retention” types of pills like diuretics.

Now, both Yasmin and Yaz birth control pills come with product label instruction for physicians and healthcare providers recommending these products to monitor the serum potassium levels in the first month for those patients who are also under treatment with other potassium retention drugs.

It has been found that 18% of women were taking Yasmin birth control pills along with other potassium retaining drug, surprisingly, this 30% of such cases happened in the first month of the Yasmin birth control pills dosage. Family practice or physicians or OB/GYN prescribes almost 18% of women who are taking Yasmin with other potassium retaining medicines at the same time.

What drug(s) may interact with drospirenone; ethinyl estradiol?

1. anastrozole

2. antibiotics or medicines for infections, especially rifampin, rifabutin, rifapentine, and griseofulvin 3. aprepitant, a medicine used for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting

4. barbiturate medicines for producing sleep or treating seizures (convulsions)

5. bosentan

6. carbamazepine

7. caffeine

8. clofibrate

9. cyclosporine

10. dantrolene

11. doxercalciferol

12. exemestane

13. grapefruit juice

14. hydrocortisone

15. letrozole

16. medicines for anxiety or sleeping problems, such as diazepam or temazepam

17. medicines for mental depression

18. medicines for diabetes, including troglitazone and pioglitazone

19. mineral oil

20. modafinil

21. mycophenolate

22. nefazodone

23. oxcarbazepine

24. phenytoin

25. prednisolone

26. ritonavir or other medicines for HIV infection or AIDS

27. selegiline

28. soy isoflavones supplements

29. St. John’s wort

30. tamoxifen or raloxifene

31. testolactone

32. theophylline

33. topiramate

34. warfarin

Drugs that can increase your potassium level include:

certain medications for high blood pressure or heart conditions (examples include ACE-inhibitors like Altace®, Capoten®, Lotensin®, Mavik®, Monopril®, Prinivil®, Univasc®, Vasotec®, Zestril®, and also Angiotensin-II receptor blockers like Atacand®, Avapro®, Cozaar®, Diovan®, Micardis®), as well as Eplerenone (Inspra(TM))
dietary salt substitutes (these may contain potassium)
heparin
NSAIDs (antiinflammatory drugs which include Advil®, Aleve®, Ansaid®, Cataflam®, Clinoril®, Daypro®, Feldene®, Indocin®, Lodine®, Naprosyn®, Orudis®, Motrin®, Voltaren®, and others) if they are taken long-term and daily, like for arthritis
potassium supplements
some ‘water pills’ (diuretics like spironolactone or Aldactone®, Dyazide®, Midamor®, Moduretic®, and others)

Since the Yasmin and YAZ are two popular brands among women and if you are planning to go for either of them for your contraception needs, please inform your physician or healthcare provider if you were on any other type of medicine, specially those described above potassium raising drugs.

Anticonvulsants, also called antiepileptic drugs (abbreviated “AEDs”), are a diverse group of pharmaceutical used in the treatment of epileptic seizures. There has also been an increase in their use with treatment of bipolar disorder, since it seems to act as mood stabiliser.

Gabapentin and Pregabalin both of which are anticonvulsants can be used for chronic pain (especially migraines and neuropathy). They include drugs with very different modes of action, but are also effective for sleeping problems, anxiety and depression.

They can also relieve fatigue, flu-like symptoms, cognitive dysfunction, neurological symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), bladder problems, restless legs, muscle tension and multiple chemical sensitivity. Their ability to tackle many symptoms at once has made them one of the most important drugs in the treatment of CFS/ME.

Because anticonvulsants work by different mechanisms, their side effects vary too – obviously these depend on the individual and some people do not get any side effects. The older ones can very rarely cause liver problems and other severe reactions. On the other hand, the newer ones are more prone to causing sedation.

Headaches, dizziness and vision impairment are common side effects. Some anticonvulsants can cause weight gain, but a few (topiramate, vigabatrin and zonisamide) may lead to weight loss.

Gabapentin (Neurontin) is one of the most popular treatments for CFS/ME and fibromyalgia. It can alleviate a wide variety of problems from interstitial cystitis to hot flashes. It is often used for anxiety and mood problems. It is also a popular pain treatment, especially for burning or electric shock-like neuropathy.

Pregabalin (Lyrica) Pregabalin is very similar to gabapentin, but may be slightly better tolerated. It was the first FDA-approved drug for fibromyalgia, though there is no evidence that it is more effective in this use than the less expensive gabapentin.

It is used for treating pain caused by neurologic diseases such as postherpetic neuralgia as well as seizures. It also is used for treating fibromyalgia. The mechanism of action of pregabalin is unknown.

Pregabalin binds to calcium channels on nerves and may modify the release of neurotransmitters (chemicals that nerves use to communicate with each other). Reducing communication between nerves may contribute to pregabalin’s effect on pain and seizures.

pregabalin was shown to provide improvement of pain in patients with fibromyalgia, a chronic and debilitating pain syndrome and is also shown shown to improve sleep and fatigue levels.

Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain that is frequently associated with fatigue and sleep disturbances and is is a complaint that is frequently associated with CFS. It is estimated to affect two percent of the population, or 5.6 million Americans, and occurs most frequently in women.

The double-blind, placebo-controlled monotherapy study involved 529 patients diagnosed with FMS. Patients were randomized to receive placebo or pregabalin (150 mg, 300 mg or 450 mg per day) for eight weeks. The study evaluated the efficacy and safety of pregabalin for the treatment of pain and associated symptoms such as sleep and fatigue. Patients were required to characterise and record their pain on a daily basis in detailed diaries.

Pregabalin-treated patients (450 mg/day) showed statistically significant improvements in pain compared to those who received placebo. Further, 29 percent of pregabalin-treated patients reported at least a 50 percent reduction in pain, compared with a reduction of 13 percent for patients who received placebo, a difference that was statistically significant.

In addition, pregabalin significantly improved sleep quality and fatigue!!

To demonstrate improvements in the core symptoms of pain, sleep and fatigue represents an important advance, particularly as there are no approved treatments for this condition.

The most common dose-related side effects reported by patients were dizziness and drowsiness. Most adverse events were mild to moderate in intensity, and many resolved during the study. Seventy-eight percent of all patients completed the study.

Developed by Pfizer, pregabalin has been studied in an extensive clinical program involving over 8,000 patients worldwide. The company has completed pivotal studies to support the filing of a New Drug Application for pregabalin for the treatment of neuropathic pain and generalized anxiety disorder and as an add-on therapy for epilepsy.

Carbamazepine (Tegretol) Carbamazepine is an old inexpensive anticonvulsant which has sometimes been used in CFS/ME. It is particularly effective for sharp and stabbing neuropathic pain. It can cause liver damage and other serious problems, so safer alternatives have mostly surpassed it and is not in widespead use today.

Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) is a newer derivative of carbamazepine with similar efficacy and uses, but it may be less likely to cause some of the serious adverse reactions.

Lamotrigine (Lamictal) Lamotrigine affects many neurotransmitters and receptors in the brain. It also has some antiviral activity against HHV-6, a herpes virus which has been associated with CFS/ME. Some people with CFS/ME have found it extremely useful.

Unfortunately lamotrigine can cause a life-threatening rash. This is very rare, but up to 10% of the patients develop some sort of a rash (usually harmless), so the drug is often discontinued just in case.

Levetiracetam (Keppra) Levetiracetam may be the antidepressant with best tolerability and fewest side effects. It is often useful in RLS and migraine (especially migraine with aura). It may also help refractory cases of chronic pain and PTSD.

Clonazepam (Klonopin) Clonazepam belongs to benzodiazepines, a class of tranquilizer drugs. It is sometimes used for sleeping problems and for its muscle relaxing properties. It is also an anticonvulsant. Many CFS/ME and fibromyalgia experts believe that in low doses clonazepam is one of the best treatments for these illnesses.

Other Alternatives Topiramate (Topamax) is often used in migraine prophylaxis (prevention) and may also help neuropathic pain, but it is quite prone to causing cognitive impairment. Tiagabine (Gabitril) is good for anxiety and sleep and a preliminary study found it effective in fibromyalgia. Zonisamide (Zonegran) is currently being tried for the combination of fibromyalgia and migraine in a clinical trial.

Afterward:

Reader aware!! Please note that I am not a medical profession and that this article is being used as a means to promote my website which is involved in the bringing about an awareness of Chronic fatigue Syndrome. I do however have significant experience with the disease itself and am concerned deeply by the effects that it has on anyone suffering from it.

My wife Amanda has CFS and suffers immensely and it is my experience with her and my subsequent research into CFS that is the basis of the information above.

If you are interested in discussing issues related to CFS & ME we have a web-site that tries to help people, organises events to promote awareness and raises funds through various means.

CFS and ME Awareness (CMA) is maintained by Lee Miller who has since early 2006 been actively campaigning for change within the UK government who still refuse to give funds to research CFS/ME. CMA has recently updated its web-site which now incorporates a user based advice forum, membership is free as are many of the fund raising expeditions.

For more information email Lee on: [email protected]

Or visit the web-site at:

[http://www.cfsandmeawareness.com]

Alternatively you can sign our petition at:

http://petitions.number10.gov.uk/chronicfatigueme/

Article Source:
http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Lee_C_Miller/267889

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *