Mysoline kaufen online

Being a very unpredictable disease, epilepsy frequently rules the lives of those attacked by it. The solitary way to maintain control over symptoms is by using assorted combinations of anti-convulsive drugs and developing a well-balanced style of living that keeps excesses of all kinds away.

Mysoline, is an anti-convulsive drug that stops seizures triggered by epilepsy. This form of long-term treatment can be taken for an indefinite period of time. However long you keep taking it, be absolutely sure a close contact with your doctor is maintained for a professional monitoring of your condition.

Treatment Specifics

This medication should be administered as suspension or capsules, and quantity depends on the intensity of the problem, body weight and age. If you choose Mysoline in liquid form, keep it in a dark location and vigorously shake the bottle prior to every usage to ascertain you get the accurate amount.

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as possible. If it is within 1 hour of your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Warnings

The only health circumstance that is totally mismated is porphyria, an inherited metabolic disorder.

At the conclusion of treatment, never discontinue taking this medication abruptly, as this may contribute to stronger seizures than you’ve experienced previously. Withdrawal must be a gradual process.

Taking into consideration the fact that this drug is, for the most part, administered for an eminently
long period of time, intermittent blood tests are imperative to maintain an accurate view of your health condition, and to inhibit any possible system decline in quality.

Beware of drug interactions

Prior to beginning any new drug therapy, make sure it doesn’t interject with this medication.Or you risk to jeopardise the effectiveness of either. Medications that are susceptible to Mysoline incumbrance include: estrogen based oral contraceptives, certain antibiotics, blood-thinning drugs, anti-depressants and steroidal drugs

On that account, try to abstain from all alcoholic drinks while using this medication. In order to circumvent possible unwanted side effects, it is important to inform your health care provider on the use of this drug.

There are an abundance of other drugs that can be safely mixed with Mysoline without triggering any negative effects. Your doctor is the most qualified person to talk to when needing to interpret other assorted health troubles that inevitably appear.

Use this medication exactly as prescribed. Do not change from one manufacturer’s product to another without consulting your doctor.

Continue taking Mysoline even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.

Mysoline gives you the effectiveness of phenobarbital plus additional protection. A patient whose seizures have not been controlled by phenobarbital may have better results from Mysoline.

study in children-which also included Depakote (valproate)-focused on the rate of side effects. Only 8% of the children who were given Mysoline had to stop taking it because of side effects. Phenobarbital, which can be an excellent medication, often is avoided in children because of the possibility of mental slowing. By using Mysoline alone, children can enjoy many of the same benefits while avoiding this problem because the amount of phenobarbital produced by breaking down the Mysoline is low.

It is important to remember that no single combination of antiepileptic medications is perfect for everyone. Sometimes, a series of combinations must be tried before finding what is best for the individual patient.

Warren has done extensive research on the most popular seizure medications. Get the unbiased reviews on these drugs. Pros and cons.

More Mysoline Facts [http://www.seizuremedreviews.com]

Article Source:
http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Warren_Peters/87701

Being a very unpredictable disease, epilepsy frequently rules the lives of those attacked by it. The solitary way to maintain control over symptoms is by using assorted combinations of anti-convulsive drugs and developing a well-balanced style of living that keeps excesses of all kinds away.

Mysoline, is an anti-convulsive drug that stops seizures triggered by epilepsy. This form of long-term treatment can be taken for an indefinite period of time. However long you keep taking it, be absolutely sure a close contact with your doctor is maintained for a professional monitoring of your condition.

Treatment Specifics

This medication should be administered as suspension or capsules, and quantity depends on the intensity of the problem, body weight and age. If you choose Mysoline in liquid form, keep it in a dark location and vigorously shake the bottle prior to every usage to ascertain you get the accurate amount.

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as possible. If it is within 1 hour of your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Warnings

The only health circumstance that is totally mismated is porphyria, an inherited metabolic disorder.

At the conclusion of treatment, never discontinue taking this medication abruptly, as this may contribute to stronger seizures than you’ve experienced previously. Withdrawal must be a gradual process.

Taking into consideration the fact that this drug is, for the most part, administered for an eminently
long period of time, intermittent blood tests are imperative to maintain an accurate view of your health condition, and to inhibit any possible system decline in quality.

Beware of drug interactions

Prior to beginning any new drug therapy, make sure it doesn’t interject with this medication.Or you risk to jeopardise the effectiveness of either. Medications that are susceptible to Mysoline incumbrance include: estrogen based oral contraceptives, certain antibiotics, blood-thinning drugs, anti-depressants and steroidal drugs

On that account, try to abstain from all alcoholic drinks while using this medication. In order to circumvent possible unwanted side effects, it is important to inform your health care provider on the use of this drug.

There are an abundance of other drugs that can be safely mixed with Mysoline without triggering any negative effects. Your doctor is the most qualified person to talk to when needing to interpret other assorted health troubles that inevitably appear.

Use this medication exactly as prescribed. Do not change from one manufacturer’s product to another without consulting your doctor.

Continue taking Mysoline even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.

Mysoline gives you the effectiveness of phenobarbital plus additional protection. A patient whose seizures have not been controlled by phenobarbital may have better results from Mysoline.

study in children-which also included Depakote (valproate)-focused on the rate of side effects. Only 8% of the children who were given Mysoline had to stop taking it because of side effects. Phenobarbital, which can be an excellent medication, often is avoided in children because of the possibility of mental slowing. By using Mysoline alone, children can enjoy many of the same benefits while avoiding this problem because the amount of phenobarbital produced by breaking down the Mysoline is low.

It is important to remember that no single combination of antiepileptic medications is perfect for everyone. Sometimes, a series of combinations must be tried before finding what is best for the individual patient.

The common tests are done to diagnose Epilepsy are:

1. A complete physical and neurological examination of muscle strength, reflexes, eyesight, hearing, and ability to detect various sensations

2. Blood tests to check your general health and to rule out other possible causes for your seizures, such as low blood sugar levels or diabetes.

3. An electrocardiogram (ECG) test to record the electrical activity in the heart.

4. An electroencephalogram (EEG) tests to measure electrical impulses in the brain.

5. Imaging studies of the brain, such as magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)

6. Other tests, if required might include magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

Treatment for Epilepsy

1. Medication

Epilepsy is mainly treated by medication, which particularly includes anticonvulsant drugs. Doctors prescribe medication for Epilepsy depending upon several factors such as the frequency and severity of the seizures and the person’s age, his overall general health, and medical history. An accurate diagnosis of the type of epilepsy is also critical to choosing the best treatment. There are several drugs available to treat epilepsy. Brand name anticonvulsants are most preferred by doctors but many insurance companies may not cover the cost hence, it is better to start taking a generic anticonvulsant medication. But remember, if the desired control is not achieved the patient should start taking the brand name drug. Different types of epilepsy vary vastly, the use of medication in general can control seizures in about 70% of patients. Some of the commonly used medicines for Epilepsy are Dilantin or Phenytek, Phenobarbital, Tegretol or Carbatrol, Mysoline, Zarontin, Depakene, Depakote, Depakote ER, Valium and similar tranquilizers such as Tranxene and Klonopin, Felbatol, Gabitril, Keppra, Lamictal, Lyrica, Neurontin, Topamax,Trileptal and Zonegran.

Side effects of medication

The drugs used to treat epilepsy have certain side effects. Depending upon the dose, type of medication and the course of treatment the side effects vary. Patients with higher doses usually have more side effects, but they tend to lessen with time as the body adjusts to the medication. There are three types of side effects –

• Common side effects – These side effects occur with any epilepsy drug because it effects the nervous system. These side effects include blurry or double vision, fatigue, sleepiness, unsteadiness, and stomach upset.

• Idiosyncratic side effects- These are rare and unpredictable reactions which are not dose-related which are mostly seen as skin rashes, low blood cell counts, and liver problems.

• Unique side effects- These are those that are not shared by other drugs in the same class. Your doctor will discuss any unique side effects before prescribing the medication.

In certain types of epilepsy, after a few years of medication the patients might be relieved of the treatment while some other might need a lifelong treatment. Patients who are seizure free for a certain period are recommended for a reevaluation to make sure the discontinuation of medicines. Remember, there are a few exceptions! Discontinuing a medication also depends on more than the length of the seizure-free period.

2. Surgery

Surgery is done to remove a small part of the brain which is the main cause of the epilepsy. Surgery is considered only when seizures cannot be controlled with medication, especially focal seizures. However, Surgery is possible only for a minority of people with epilepsy. Surgery can have its own factors of risks as well.

3. Vagal nerve stimulation

Vagal nerve stimulation treatment is done by implanting a small generator under the skin below the left collarbone. The vagus nerve is stimulated to reduce the frequency and intensity of seizures. This treatment might be suitable for certain patients with seizures that are difficult to control with medication.

4. The Ketogenic diet

This is a diet which is very high in fat, low in protein and almost carbohydrate-free. This diet can be effective in the treatment of difficult-to-control seizures in some children.

There are some other complementary therapies such as aromatherapy that may help the patient to relax and relieve stress. But, they have not been proven effective to control or in preventing seizures. Some patients suffering from epilepsy grow anxious or depressed due to their condition. In such cases, counseling might help to overcome such situations.

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Being a very unpredictable disease, epilepsy frequently rules the lives of those attacked by it. The solitary way to maintain control over symptoms is by using assorted combinations of anti-convulsive drugs and developing a well-balanced style of living that keeps excesses of all kinds away.

Mysoline, is an anti-convulsive drug that stops seizures triggered by epilepsy. This form of long-term treatment can be taken for an indefinite period of time. However long you keep taking it, be absolutely sure a close contact with your doctor is maintained for a professional monitoring of your condition.

Treatment Specifics

This medication should be administered as suspension or capsules, and quantity depends on the intensity of the problem, body weight and age. If you choose Mysoline in liquid form, keep it in a dark location and vigorously shake the bottle prior to every usage to ascertain you get the accurate amount.

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as possible. If it is within 1 hour of your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Warnings

The only health circumstance that is totally mismated is porphyria, an inherited metabolic disorder.

At the conclusion of treatment, never discontinue taking this medication abruptly, as this may contribute to stronger seizures than you’ve experienced previously. Withdrawal must be a gradual process.

Taking into consideration the fact that this drug is, for the most part, administered for an eminently
long period of time, intermittent blood tests are imperative to maintain an accurate view of your health condition, and to inhibit any possible system decline in quality.

Beware of drug interactions

Prior to beginning any new drug therapy, make sure it doesn’t interject with this medication.Or you risk to jeopardise the effectiveness of either. Medications that are susceptible to Mysoline incumbrance include: estrogen based oral contraceptives, certain antibiotics, blood-thinning drugs, anti-depressants and steroidal drugs

On that account, try to abstain from all alcoholic drinks while using this medication. In order to circumvent possible unwanted side effects, it is important to inform your health care provider on the use of this drug.

There are an abundance of other drugs that can be safely mixed with Mysoline without triggering any negative effects. Your doctor is the most qualified person to talk to when needing to interpret other assorted health troubles that inevitably appear.

Use this medication exactly as prescribed. Do not change from one manufacturer’s product to another without consulting your doctor.

Continue taking Mysoline even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.

Mysoline gives you the effectiveness of phenobarbital plus additional protection. A patient whose seizures have not been controlled by phenobarbital may have better results from Mysoline.

study in children-which also included Depakote (valproate)-focused on the rate of side effects. Only 8% of the children who were given Mysoline had to stop taking it because of side effects. Phenobarbital, which can be an excellent medication, often is avoided in children because of the possibility of mental slowing. By using Mysoline alone, children can enjoy many of the same benefits while avoiding this problem because the amount of phenobarbital produced by breaking down the Mysoline is low.

It is important to remember that no single combination of antiepileptic medications is perfect for everyone. Sometimes, a series of combinations must be tried before finding what is best for the individual patient.

The common tests are done to diagnose Epilepsy are:

1. A complete physical and neurological examination of muscle strength, reflexes, eyesight, hearing, and ability to detect various sensations

2. Blood tests to check your general health and to rule out other possible causes for your seizures, such as low blood sugar levels or diabetes.

3. An electrocardiogram (ECG) test to record the electrical activity in the heart.

4. An electroencephalogram (EEG) tests to measure electrical impulses in the brain.

5. Imaging studies of the brain, such as magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)

6. Other tests, if required might include magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

Treatment for Epilepsy

1. Medication

Epilepsy is mainly treated by medication, which particularly includes anticonvulsant drugs. Doctors prescribe medication for Epilepsy depending upon several factors such as the frequency and severity of the seizures and the person’s age, his overall general health, and medical history. An accurate diagnosis of the type of epilepsy is also critical to choosing the best treatment. There are several drugs available to treat epilepsy. Brand name anticonvulsants are most preferred by doctors but many insurance companies may not cover the cost hence, it is better to start taking a generic anticonvulsant medication. But remember, if the desired control is not achieved the patient should start taking the brand name drug. Different types of epilepsy vary vastly, the use of medication in general can control seizures in about 70% of patients. Some of the commonly used medicines for Epilepsy are Dilantin or Phenytek, Phenobarbital, Tegretol or Carbatrol, Mysoline, Zarontin, Depakene, Depakote, Depakote ER, Valium and similar tranquilizers such as Tranxene and Klonopin, Felbatol, Gabitril, Keppra, Lamictal, Lyrica, Neurontin, Topamax,Trileptal and Zonegran.

Side effects of medication

The drugs used to treat epilepsy have certain side effects. Depending upon the dose, type of medication and the course of treatment the side effects vary. Patients with higher doses usually have more side effects, but they tend to lessen with time as the body adjusts to the medication. There are three types of side effects –

• Common side effects – These side effects occur with any epilepsy drug because it effects the nervous system. These side effects include blurry or double vision, fatigue, sleepiness, unsteadiness, and stomach upset.

• Idiosyncratic side effects- These are rare and unpredictable reactions which are not dose-related which are mostly seen as skin rashes, low blood cell counts, and liver problems.

• Unique side effects- These are those that are not shared by other drugs in the same class. Your doctor will discuss any unique side effects before prescribing the medication.

In certain types of epilepsy, after a few years of medication the patients might be relieved of the treatment while some other might need a lifelong treatment. Patients who are seizure free for a certain period are recommended for a reevaluation to make sure the discontinuation of medicines. Remember, there are a few exceptions! Discontinuing a medication also depends on more than the length of the seizure-free period.

2. Surgery

Surgery is done to remove a small part of the brain which is the main cause of the epilepsy. Surgery is considered only when seizures cannot be controlled with medication, especially focal seizures. However, Surgery is possible only for a minority of people with epilepsy. Surgery can have its own factors of risks as well.

3. Vagal nerve stimulation

Vagal nerve stimulation treatment is done by implanting a small generator under the skin below the left collarbone. The vagus nerve is stimulated to reduce the frequency and intensity of seizures. This treatment might be suitable for certain patients with seizures that are difficult to control with medication.

4. The Ketogenic diet

This is a diet which is very high in fat, low in protein and almost carbohydrate-free. This diet can be effective in the treatment of difficult-to-control seizures in some children.

There are some other complementary therapies such as aromatherapy that may help the patient to relax and relieve stress. But, they have not been proven effective to control or in preventing seizures. Some patients suffering from epilepsy grow anxious or depressed due to their condition. In such cases, counseling might help to overcome such situations.

Management of Epilepsy consists of treatment of the acute attacks and elective management. The latter consists of: removal of precipitating or causative factors, anti-epileptic medication and social rehabilitation.

All cases of epilepsy should be investigated for the presence of primary neurological conditions like meningitis, neurosyphilis, cysticercosis, fluid and electrolyte imbalance and space occupying lesions in the Brain are correctable and they have to be excluded.

Anti-epileptic drugs
Common anti-epileptic drugs

1. Phenobarbitone (Luminal): 3-5mg/Kg (Children); 60-200mg (Adults). Principal indications include tonic clonic, simple and complex and partial seizures. Its serum half life in hours is 96 + or – 12.
2. Phenytoin (Dilantin): 4-7mg/Kg (children); 300-400mg (Adults). Its serum half life in hours is 24 + or – 12.
3. Carbamazepine (Tegretol): 20-30mg/Kg (Children); 600-1200mg (Adults). Principal indications include Tonic and partial complex seizures. Its serum half life in hours is 12 + or – 3.
4. Primidone (Mysoline): 10-25mg/Kg (Children); 750-1500mg (Adults). Its principal indication is during tonic-clonic partial complex and simple seizures. Its serum half life in hours is 12 + or – 6 hours.
5. Ethosuximide (Zarontin): 20-30mg/Kg (Children); 750-1500mg (Adults). Used when seizures are absent. Serum half life in hours is 30 + or – 6 hours.
6. Diazepam: 0.15mg/Kg (Children); 10-250mg (Adults). Used in status epilepticus.
7. Valproic acid: 30-60mg/Kg (Children); 1000-3000mg (Adults). Used during seizure absence, simple and complex partial seizures. Serum half life in hours is 8 + or – 2 hours.
8. Clonazepam: 0.01-0.2mg/kg (Children); 15-20mg (Adults). Used during absence of seizures and also myoclonus. Serum half life in hours is 18-50 hours.

Though, anti-epileptic drugs are not curative in epilepsy, they help to control convulsions and give symptomatic relief. In many instances, prolonged administration results in abolition of the convulsive tendency. The responses to drugs vary in the different types of seizures and hence it is necessary to administer the appropriate drug in optimum dosage. If the response to a single drug is not adequate, another drug should be added. In some, the combination produces a better effect. A stable drug regime should not, however, be frequently changed. Sudden withdrawal of a drug should be avoided since this is the most common cause for precipitation of status epilepticus. Once treatment has began, it should be continued at least for some years. In general, withdrawal of medication can be considered if three years of seizure-free period has elapsed, the EEG is free from paroxysmal abnormality and the risk factors have been controlled. Convulsions occurring during therapy are more often due to drug default.

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Being a very unpredictable disease, epilepsy frequently rules the lives of those attacked by it. The solitary way to maintain control over symptoms is by using assorted combinations of anti-convulsive drugs and developing a well-balanced style of living that keeps excesses of all kinds away.

Mysoline, is an anti-convulsive drug that stops seizures triggered by epilepsy. This form of long-term treatment can be taken for an indefinite period of time. However long you keep taking it, be absolutely sure a close contact with your doctor is maintained for a professional monitoring of your condition.

Treatment Specifics

This medication should be administered as suspension or capsules, and quantity depends on the intensity of the problem, body weight and age. If you choose Mysoline in liquid form, keep it in a dark location and vigorously shake the bottle prior to every usage to ascertain you get the accurate amount.

If you miss a dose, take it as soon as possible. If it is within 1 hour of your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not take 2 doses at once.

Warnings

The only health circumstance that is totally mismated is porphyria, an inherited metabolic disorder.

At the conclusion of treatment, never discontinue taking this medication abruptly, as this may contribute to stronger seizures than you’ve experienced previously. Withdrawal must be a gradual process.

Taking into consideration the fact that this drug is, for the most part, administered for an eminently
long period of time, intermittent blood tests are imperative to maintain an accurate view of your health condition, and to inhibit any possible system decline in quality.

Beware of drug interactions

Prior to beginning any new drug therapy, make sure it doesn’t interject with this medication.Or you risk to jeopardise the effectiveness of either. Medications that are susceptible to Mysoline incumbrance include: estrogen based oral contraceptives, certain antibiotics, blood-thinning drugs, anti-depressants and steroidal drugs

On that account, try to abstain from all alcoholic drinks while using this medication. In order to circumvent possible unwanted side effects, it is important to inform your health care provider on the use of this drug.

There are an abundance of other drugs that can be safely mixed with Mysoline without triggering any negative effects. Your doctor is the most qualified person to talk to when needing to interpret other assorted health troubles that inevitably appear.

Use this medication exactly as prescribed. Do not change from one manufacturer’s product to another without consulting your doctor.

Continue taking Mysoline even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.

Mysoline gives you the effectiveness of phenobarbital plus additional protection. A patient whose seizures have not been controlled by phenobarbital may have better results from Mysoline.

study in children-which also included Depakote (valproate)-focused on the rate of side effects. Only 8% of the children who were given Mysoline had to stop taking it because of side effects. Phenobarbital, which can be an excellent medication, often is avoided in children because of the possibility of mental slowing. By using Mysoline alone, children can enjoy many of the same benefits while avoiding this problem because the amount of phenobarbital produced by breaking down the Mysoline is low.

It is important to remember that no single combination of antiepileptic medications is perfect for everyone. Sometimes, a series of combinations must be tried before finding what is best for the individual patient.

The common tests are done to diagnose Epilepsy are:

1. A complete physical and neurological examination of muscle strength, reflexes, eyesight, hearing, and ability to detect various sensations

2. Blood tests to check your general health and to rule out other possible causes for your seizures, such as low blood sugar levels or diabetes.

3. An electrocardiogram (ECG) test to record the electrical activity in the heart.

4. An electroencephalogram (EEG) tests to measure electrical impulses in the brain.

5. Imaging studies of the brain, such as magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)

6. Other tests, if required might include magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

Treatment for Epilepsy

1. Medication

Epilepsy is mainly treated by medication, which particularly includes anticonvulsant drugs. Doctors prescribe medication for Epilepsy depending upon several factors such as the frequency and severity of the seizures and the person’s age, his overall general health, and medical history. An accurate diagnosis of the type of epilepsy is also critical to choosing the best treatment. There are several drugs available to treat epilepsy. Brand name anticonvulsants are most preferred by doctors but many insurance companies may not cover the cost hence, it is better to start taking a generic anticonvulsant medication. But remember, if the desired control is not achieved the patient should start taking the brand name drug. Different types of epilepsy vary vastly, the use of medication in general can control seizures in about 70% of patients. Some of the commonly used medicines for Epilepsy are Dilantin or Phenytek, Phenobarbital, Tegretol or Carbatrol, Mysoline, Zarontin, Depakene, Depakote, Depakote ER, Valium and similar tranquilizers such as Tranxene and Klonopin, Felbatol, Gabitril, Keppra, Lamictal, Lyrica, Neurontin, Topamax,Trileptal and Zonegran.

Side effects of medication

The drugs used to treat epilepsy have certain side effects. Depending upon the dose, type of medication and the course of treatment the side effects vary. Patients with higher doses usually have more side effects, but they tend to lessen with time as the body adjusts to the medication. There are three types of side effects –

• Common side effects – These side effects occur with any epilepsy drug because it effects the nervous system. These side effects include blurry or double vision, fatigue, sleepiness, unsteadiness, and stomach upset.

• Idiosyncratic side effects- These are rare and unpredictable reactions which are not dose-related which are mostly seen as skin rashes, low blood cell counts, and liver problems.

• Unique side effects- These are those that are not shared by other drugs in the same class. Your doctor will discuss any unique side effects before prescribing the medication.

In certain types of epilepsy, after a few years of medication the patients might be relieved of the treatment while some other might need a lifelong treatment. Patients who are seizure free for a certain period are recommended for a reevaluation to make sure the discontinuation of medicines. Remember, there are a few exceptions! Discontinuing a medication also depends on more than the length of the seizure-free period.

2. Surgery

Surgery is done to remove a small part of the brain which is the main cause of the epilepsy. Surgery is considered only when seizures cannot be controlled with medication, especially focal seizures. However, Surgery is possible only for a minority of people with epilepsy. Surgery can have its own factors of risks as well.

3. Vagal nerve stimulation

Vagal nerve stimulation treatment is done by implanting a small generator under the skin below the left collarbone. The vagus nerve is stimulated to reduce the frequency and intensity of seizures. This treatment might be suitable for certain patients with seizures that are difficult to control with medication.

4. The Ketogenic diet

This is a diet which is very high in fat, low in protein and almost carbohydrate-free. This diet can be effective in the treatment of difficult-to-control seizures in some children.

There are some other complementary therapies such as aromatherapy that may help the patient to relax and relieve stress. But, they have not been proven effective to control or in preventing seizures. Some patients suffering from epilepsy grow anxious or depressed due to their condition. In such cases, counseling might help to overcome such situations.

Management of Epilepsy consists of treatment of the acute attacks and elective management. The latter consists of: removal of precipitating or causative factors, anti-epileptic medication and social rehabilitation.

All cases of epilepsy should be investigated for the presence of primary neurological conditions like meningitis, neurosyphilis, cysticercosis, fluid and electrolyte imbalance and space occupying lesions in the Brain are correctable and they have to be excluded.

Anti-epileptic drugs
Common anti-epileptic drugs

1. Phenobarbitone (Luminal): 3-5mg/Kg (Children); 60-200mg (Adults). Principal indications include tonic clonic, simple and complex and partial seizures. Its serum half life in hours is 96 + or – 12.
2. Phenytoin (Dilantin): 4-7mg/Kg (children); 300-400mg (Adults). Its serum half life in hours is 24 + or – 12.
3. Carbamazepine (Tegretol): 20-30mg/Kg (Children); 600-1200mg (Adults). Principal indications include Tonic and partial complex seizures. Its serum half life in hours is 12 + or – 3.
4. Primidone (Mysoline): 10-25mg/Kg (Children); 750-1500mg (Adults). Its principal indication is during tonic-clonic partial complex and simple seizures. Its serum half life in hours is 12 + or – 6 hours.
5. Ethosuximide (Zarontin): 20-30mg/Kg (Children); 750-1500mg (Adults). Used when seizures are absent. Serum half life in hours is 30 + or – 6 hours.
6. Diazepam: 0.15mg/Kg (Children); 10-250mg (Adults). Used in status epilepticus.
7. Valproic acid: 30-60mg/Kg (Children); 1000-3000mg (Adults). Used during seizure absence, simple and complex partial seizures. Serum half life in hours is 8 + or – 2 hours.
8. Clonazepam: 0.01-0.2mg/kg (Children); 15-20mg (Adults). Used during absence of seizures and also myoclonus. Serum half life in hours is 18-50 hours.

Though, anti-epileptic drugs are not curative in epilepsy, they help to control convulsions and give symptomatic relief. In many instances, prolonged administration results in abolition of the convulsive tendency. The responses to drugs vary in the different types of seizures and hence it is necessary to administer the appropriate drug in optimum dosage. If the response to a single drug is not adequate, another drug should be added. In some, the combination produces a better effect. A stable drug regime should not, however, be frequently changed. Sudden withdrawal of a drug should be avoided since this is the most common cause for precipitation of status epilepticus. Once treatment has began, it should be continued at least for some years. In general, withdrawal of medication can be considered if three years of seizure-free period has elapsed, the EEG is free from paroxysmal abnormality and the risk factors have been controlled. Convulsions occurring during therapy are more often due to drug default.

There are different ways of diagnosing epilepsy; some of which when added together give a better and clearer picture of the existence of the disease condition. It is usually advisable to carry out a comprehensive investigation before trying to make a diagnosis because of the social importance of the condition.

Diagnosis
i. The presenting signs and symptoms can give a clue to diagnosis.
ii. Electro-encephalogram (EEG): This will help detect the electrical discharges of the brain.
iii. Blood test: To determine the glucose and calcium levels of the blood.
iv. Lumbar puncture: To detect if there is any infection that may have likely spread to the brain.
v. X-ray of the skull: This will help in detecting any tumour of the brain.
vi. Physical and neurological examination.

First Aid management of Epilepsy
a. Give a helping hand to the patient quickly to prevent him from injury during a fall.
b. Loosen tight clothing from around the neck, chest and abdomen.
c. Place a spatula in-between the teeth to prevent him biting his tongue or lips.
d. Remove dangerous instruments around the patient
e. Allow enough air to reach patient by controlling the crowd around him
f. Do not restrict patient during fit/jerking to prevent injury/fracture
g. Reassure on-lookers
h. Observe vital signs
i. Note whether patient sustained injury or had incontinence. Also note the time the fit stopped and how long it lasted.
j. Remove his clothes if they are soiled and give him a bath

Medical management
1. Anti-convulsants: e.g. Phenobarbitone, Epanutin (Phenytoin Sodium), Mysoline, Tegretol, etc. may be given as recommended by the doctor.
2. Tranquilizers: e.g. Chlorpromazine (Largactil), Diazepam (Valium).
3. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

Nursing management
i. Admit patient into epileptic ward
ii. Nurse in a low bed with adequate ventilation and good lighting
iii. Observe vital signs and maintain a proper record
iv. Provide comfort measures
v. Give easily digestible, semi-solid diets to prevent choking
vi. Patient should be encouraged to have enough rest and sleep. Soft pillows should be removed from him to prevent suffocating himself with the pillows during fits
vii. Personal hygiene should be encouraged
viii. Give psychological support.

Advice to patients
1. Patients should not swim, climb or operate machinery
2. Patients should have an identity card to show they are epileptic
3. Patient must guide against open fire
4. Take prescribed drugs regularly
5. Remove dentures before sleeping
6. Avoid sleeping with soft pillows
7. Do not bath alone especially if you have to use the bath tub
8. Do not go to River, stream, pond or well to fetch water alone. You must be accompanied by somebody
9. Avoid sharp instruments or corrosive liquids if fit is frequent
10. Don’t drive if fit is frequent.

Joseph Ezie Efoghor is a Registered Nurse and safety officer with several years of practical experience. He has touched many lives through his style of writing. To get more of his articles, visit [http://www.africannursesforum.com/blog]

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